• We are here for you!
  • Every question is important
  • Help each other
  • Have fun
  • Feel free to take a break whenever you need one!

Our Sponsors

Why is it called BitCamp?

A bit (short for binary digit) is the smallest unit of data in a computer. A bit has a single binary value, either 0 or 1.

Made with Code Video:

What is software?

Computer Instructions

What kind of stuff uses software?

Smartphones & Mobile Apps

Fitness Trackers


Self-driving Cars

What kind of stuff does

a software developer do?

Software Developer = Master Builder

Master Builders

solve problems

build cool things

use their imagination

All things software developers get to do every day

Being a Software Developer...

is like being paid to be creative, solve problems, and build things.



Software Languages

Coding Languages Image

Software Languages

Front End Technologies

What is HTML?

HTML is the code that allows us to build websites

HyperText Markup Language



  • Web design
    The process of planning, structuring and creating a website
  • Web development
    The process of programming dynamic web applications
  • Front end
    The outwardly visible elements of a website or application
  • Back end
    The inner workings and functionality of a website or application.

Get Started: Folder Structure

All the files for your site should be stored within the same folder.

This includes:

  • HTML Files
  • CSS Files
  • Images
  • Script files
  • Anything else that will appear on your site

Note: File names should not include spaces or special characters. File names ARE case sensitive.

Let's develop it!

Let's set up our folder structure and create files.

Next we'll get started on our site!

What we'll be building today

Today we will be learning how to code a site from scratch using paragraphs, headings, links, images, and lists.

Did you know...

...that you can see the code of any website?

Right click
    => "View page source"


=> More Tools
=> Developer tools

Anatomy of a website

Your Content
+ HTML: Structure
+ CSS: Presentation
= Your Website

A website is a way to present your content to the world, using HTML and CSS to present that content & make it look good.

Anatomy of a website

  • A paragraph is your content

  • Putting your content into an HTML tag to make it look like a paragraph is Structure
<p>A paragraph is your content</p>

Anatomy of an HTML element

  • Element
    • An individual component of HTML
    • Paragraph, heading, table, list, div, link, image, etc.
  • Tag
    • Marks the beginning & end of an element
    • Opening tag and Closing Tag
    • Tags contain characters that indicate the tags purpose
<tagname>Stuff in the middle</tagname>
<p>This is a sample paragraph.</p>
Tag breakdown

Anatomy of an HTML element

  • Container Element
    • An element that can contain other elements or content
    • A paragraph (<p>) contains text
  • Stand Alone Element
    • An element that cannot contain anything else


Anatomy of an HTML element

  • Attribute
    • Provides additional information about the HTML element
    • Class, ID, language, style, identity, source
    • Placed inside an opening tag, before the right angle bracket.
  • Value
    • Value is the value assigned to a given attribute.
    • Values must be contained inside quotation marks.

<div id="copyright">© GDI 2013</div>
<img src="my_picture.jpg"/>
<a href="http://girldevelopit.com">GDI</a>


The first thing on an HTML page is the doctype, which tells the browser which version of the markup language the page is using.

<!DOCTYPE html>

* The doctype is case-insensitive.
DOCtype, doctype, DocType and DoCtYpe are all valid.


After <doctype>, the page content must be contained between <html> tags.

<!DOCTYPE html>


Head and Body Tags

  • Contains the page title & meta information about the page.
  • Meta information is not visible to the user, but contains helpful information about the site.
    • Tells search engines about your page and who created it
    • Provides a description of your site

  • Contains the actual content of the page.
  • Everything contained in the body is visible to the user.

Head and Body Tags

<!DOCTYPE html>
        <title>My Awesome Site</title>
        Best page content ever!

Let's develop it!

Let's get our web page set up with a doctype, head, title and body.

Later we'll add some content to it!


All elements "nest" inside one another

Whichever element OPENS first CLOSES last

Nesting: Example

Elements are 'nested' inside the <body> tag.

    <p>A paragraph inside the body tag</p>

Paragraphs 'nested' inside list items.

        <p>A paragraph inside a list item</p>

Element: Paragraph

<p>Paragraph 1</p>
<p>Paragraph 2</p>
<p>Paragraph 3</p>
<p>Paragraph 1</p> <p>Paragraph 2</p>  <p>Paragraph 3</p>

<p>Paragraph 1</p>

<p>Paragraph 2</p>
<p>Paragraph 3</p>

Paragraph 1

Paragraph 2

Paragraph 3

* White space is only for humans!

Example: Paragraphs

Paragraphs allow you to format your content in a readable fashion.

Example of Paragraphs in the wild

* You can edit how paragraphs are displayed with CSS

Element: Heading

<h1>Heading 1</h1>
<h2>Heading 2</h2>
<h3>Heading 3</h3>
<h4>Heading 4</h4>
<h5>Heading 5</h5>
<h6>Heading 6</h6>

Heading 1

Heading 2

Heading 3

Heading 4

Heading 5
Heading 6

* Heading number indicates hierarchy, not size.

Example: Headings

Example of headings

Formatted text

  Here is a paragraph with
  <em>Emphasized</em> text and
  <strong>Important</strong> text.

Here is a paragraph with Emphasized text and Important text.

* Note: These tags are meant for meaning, not style.

Let's Develop it!

Let's add some content to our site!

Add some...

  • Headings
  • Paragraphs
  • Italic and bold text within paragraphs

Element: Link

Links have three components

  • Tag: <a></a>
  • Href attribute: "http://www.girldevelopit.com"
  • Title attribute: "Girl Develop It"
<a href="http://www.girldevelopit.com" title="Girl Develop It">GDI</a>


The <a> tag surrounds text or images to turn them into links

Link Attributes

Links can have attributes that tell the link to do different actions like open in a new tab, or launch your e-mail program.

<a href="home.html" target="_blank">Link Text</a>

Link opens in a new window/tab with target="_blank"

<a href="mailto:info@girldevelopit.com">E-mail us!</a>

Link opens mail program by inserting mailto: directly before the email address.

Relative vs. Absolute paths for links & images

  • Relative
    • Relative paths change depending upon the page the link is on.
      • Links within the same directory need no path information. "filename.jpg"
      • Subdirectories are listed without preceding slashes. "images/filename.jpg"
  • Absolute
    • Absolute paths refer to a specific location of a file, including the domain. "http://www.girldevelopit.com/chapters/detroit"
    • Typically used when pointing to a link that is not within your own domain.

Let's Develop It

Let's add links to our site!

Add links that...

  • open in the same window
  • open in a new window
  • link to an email address

Element: Image

Images have three components

  • Tag: <img/>
  • Src attribute: "images/clydesdale.jpg"
  • Alt attribute: "Horse"
<img src="images/clydesdale.jpg" alt="Horse"/>

Element: Line Break

    Everything is awesome <br/>
    Everything is cool when you're part of a team <br/>
    Everything is awesome <br/> When we're living our dream <br/>

Everything is awesome
Everything is cool when you're part of a team
Everything is awesome
When we're living our dream

Let's Develop It!

Let's add some images and line breaks to our page.

We can even turn our images into links!

Element: Unordered and ordered lists

    <li>List Item</li>
    <li>AnotherList Item</li>

    <li>List Item</li>
    <li>AnotherList Item</li>

Unordered list (bullets)

  • List Item
  • AnotherList Item

Ordered list (sequence)

  1. List Item
  2. AnotherList Item

Lists: Examples

Lists can be used to organize any list of items.

Examples of lists


You can add comments to your code that will not be seen by the browser, but only visible when viewing the code.

<!-- Comment goes here -->

Comments can be used to organize your code into sections so you (or someone else) can easily understand your code. It can also be used to 'comment out' large chunks of code to hide it from the browser.

<!-- Beginning of header -->
<div id="header">Header Content </div>
<!-- End of header -->

    <li>List Item</li>
    <li>Another List Item</li>


Tables are a way to represent complex information in a grid format.

Tables are made up of rows and columns.

Head Head
Data Data

Tables: Examples

Tables can be styled with CSS to add zebra striping or to highlight important rows/columns.

Example of tables

Character codes

There are character codes for many different characters in many different languages

  • Delta: &delta; δ
  • Copyright symbol: &copy; ©
  • Grave: &grave; `
  • An grave a: &agrave; à
  • A full list is available at htmlandcssbook.com
Example of Characters



Let's Develop it!

Let's add some...

  • Ordered and unordered lists
  • Comments
  • Tables

We can make a list of links, a list of images, or a table of images!

Anatomy of a website

Your Content
+ HTML: Structure
+ CSS: Presentation
= Your Website

A website is a way to present your content to the world, using HTML and CSS to present that content & make it look good.

CSS: What is it?

CSS = Cascading Style Sheets

CSS is a "style sheet language" that lets you style the elements on your page.

CSS works in conjunction with HTML, but is not HTML itself.

CSS: What can it do?

All colored text, position, and size is created using CSS

CSS: What does it look like?

The CSS Rule

The CSS Rule

The CSS Rule

selector {
    property: value;

A block of CSS code is a rule.

The rule starts with a selector.

It has sets of properties and values.

A property-value pair is a declaration.

CSS Syntax

Declarations: Property and value of style you plan to use on HTML element.

Declarations end with a semicolon.

Declaration groups are surrounded by curly brackets.

selector {
    property: value;
    property: value;
    property: value;

Selector: Element

p {
    property: value;

Selects all paragraph elements.

img {
    property: value;

Selects all image elements.

Selector: ID

#footer {
    property: value;

Selects all elements with an id of "footer".

<p id="footer">Copyright 2011</p>

Selector: Class

.warning {
    color: red;

Selects all elements with a class of "warning".

<p class="warning">Run away!</p>

IDs vs. Classes

ID -- Should only apply to one element on a webpage.

ex. A webpage only has one footer.

The "#" is how you tell CSS "this is an id."

Class -- Lots of elements can have the same class.

ex. There can be many warning on one webpage.

The "." is how you tell CSS "this is a class name."

Selector: Position

p em {
    color: yellow;

Selects all em elements that are within a paragraph

<p>This is <em>important.</em></p>

Property: Color

The color property changes the color of the text.

p {
    color: red;
    color: #ff0000;
    color: rgb(255, 0, 0);

Color name

Hexadecimal value

The 17 standard colors are: aqua, black, blue, fuchsia, gray, grey, green, lime, maroon, navy, olive, purple, red, silver, teal, white, and yellow.

Property: Background-color

The background-color property changes the color of the background.

p {
    background-color: black;
    background-color: #000000;
    background-color: rgb(0,0,0);

Property: Font-family

The font-family property defines which font is used.

p {
    font-family: "Times New Roman";
    font-family: serif;
    font-family: "Arial", sans-serif;

Specific font name

Generic name

Comma-separated list

Property: Font-size

The font-size property specifies the size of the font.

p {
    font-size: 12px;
    font-size: 100%;




Styles "cascade" down until changed

p {
    font-family: 'Helvetica';
.red {
#special {
    font-family: Arial;

<p class="green">Paragraph</p>
<p class="red">Paragraph</p>
<p class="red" id="special">Paragraph</p>

CSS Properties

Many CSS properties have self-explanatory names:

  • color
  • background-color
  • font-size
  • width
  • height

Comprehensive list of all CSS properties:


...or just Google it!

Connecting CSS to HTML

3 ways




Connecting CSS to HTML: Inline

<p style="color:red">Some text.</p>

Uses the HTML attribute style.

Difficult to use in large projects

Not preferred.

Connecting CSS to HTML: Embedded

    <style type="text/css">
        p {
            color: blue;
            font-size: 12px;

Inside <head> element.

Uses <style> tag.

Can only be used in one html file

Connecting CSS to HTML: Linked

    <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="styles.css">

Shared resource for several pages.

Reduced file size & bandwidth

Easy to maintain in larger projects.



Let's develop it

  • Create a new .css file
  • Add a link to the file in the head of the portfolio made last time
  • Add styles to change the colors, background colors or fonts of different parts of your site
  • Try using ids and classes to change specific elements